Crime and criminal justice are major dynamic issues in contemporary societies. Every society is confronted with variations in crime rates and has to deal with large groups of crime places, offenders, and victims. Crimes appear in changing images in everyday life and criminal justice agencies have to find solutions for these societal phenomena. This means that the science of criminology is important not just for scientists and scholars who want to develop basic knowledge and understand the causes of crime, but also to policy makers and practitioners. Criminology as a discipline spans both basic and applied research questions, and criminology has been enriched by its ability to both provide scientific knowledge to practice and to raise critical questions about the basic principles and effects of policy and practice. There is an international community of active producers of criminological knowledge in every continent at universities, research institutes, and governmental offices. The globalization of criminological knowledge has increased the dissemination of criminological research and theory to all parts of the world. This Encyclopedia seeks to summarize that broad array of knowledge.