History of Modern Europe 1789 – 2013 By BV Rao, The book needed revision as few chapters required more information, some needed to be updated till 2013, and a few others better treatment. Chapters on The French Revolution of 1789 (chapter 2) and Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte (chapter 3) now contain more information, and the chapters on The European Union (chapter 32) and Post Cold War Era: The Dawning of New Europe (chapter 33) include events up to 2013. There is more information on the Russian Revolution of 1905 (chapter 20). Chapter on Europe Since the Seventies (chapter 31) has received better treatment. Thus, this revision makes the book up-to-date and comprehensive.
In the chapter on Renaissance it has been emphasized that in the realm of science great progress was achieved due to the discoveries and
inventions. A giant among the scientists was Newton whose law of gravitation “marked the closing of one epoch in the history of human
thought and the beginning of another”. It was proved that the universe was based on some order and that celestial phenomena occur at regular intervals. Even clocks are set to time based on the precise motion of celestial bodies. The scientific revolutions of the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries had great impact on people’s minds. It dispelled religious superstitions and introduced secular thoughts. History of Modern Europe 1789 – 2013 By BV Rao.
One of the important things in society which came to be seriously affected was traditional Christianity. Protestant Reformation followed by Catholic Counter-Reformation, which was in turn followed by religious wars in Europe, all led to the evolution of “natural religion”. The natural laws of the universe came to be applied to religion also. It was then that a conflict arose between those who believed in traditional Christianity and the supporters of natural religion. One of the great supporters of natural religion was Baruch Spinoza who said God and universe are one and the same. But the Jews and Christians attacked him for expressing atheistic views. Thus he became the most misunderstood man during the seventeenth century.