This book will be a significant contribution in the study of Sociology deliberate effort has been made to explain all the disciplines of sociology. Given the range of topics and issues that had to be covered to make it meaningful. I had to rely heavily on published materials from a wide range of sources for which I am highly obliged to the authors and organizations whose work has been referred to in this book. My aim in this book is at two levels. Firstly I lay emphases on the requirements of the candidates who aspire to sit in the FPSC and PPSC exams and the students of Sociology at post-graduate and graduate level. Secondary my aim is to provide knowledge to all those who have an interest the subject. No doubt there are number of books available in the market on the subject of Sociology and no one can claim to be perfect or enjoy monopoly. New books provide for competition and advancement of knowledge, with these views I have compiled this book on Sociology which I am sure is a humble contribution to the ever growing field of Sociology. However, this book has been compiled keeping in view the requirements of students who are appearing in FPSC, PMS and other competitive exams. It has been written strictly in accordance with the latest trends in the prescribed syllabus.